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General Relativity in Evolutionary Biology DRAFT

EDIT, July 2015:

See the full draft at the phil-sci archive:

Also check out my other Research.

Below are old notes:


I’ve discussed relativity in evolutionary biology with regards to uniform change but, as with the Special Theory of Relativity in physics, we want a theory that covers all change.

This means that insofar as relativity applies to biology under uniform motion, i.e. when a species is reproducing in a regular fashion, we want a theory of relativity that applies to biology even when a species is undergoing non-uniform motion, i.e. when the species reproductive cycle has undergone a serious change.

It is a fundamental equivalence of evolutionary biology that the struggle for survival and natural selection yield the exact same results.  This relationship has yet to be interpreted.  If we consider a person in love, financially secure and who wants nothing more than to raise children for foreseeable rest of his life.  That person may view this situation as the culmination of his struggle to survive and replicate.  That person may equally view the situation to be nature selecting him as suitable to continue life.

For what apparently are good reasons action at a distance is not allowed.  Struggle for survival does not occur at a distance; ‘struggle’ seems to inherently imply some local interaction.  Natural selection, however, is much more amorphous in nature: how exactly does nature select?  I suggest that we think of natural selection as a biofield that acts upon organisms.

Inertial ‘fitness’ and Gravitational ‘fitness’

The fitness of a thing creates a (teeny) natural selection field.  The fitness of a species creates a (small) natural selection field.  The fitness of an ecosystem creates a (large) natural selection field.

Posted in biology, fitness, General Relativity, philosophy, physics, Relativity, science, Special Relativity. Tagged with , , , , , .

I just figured out general relativity for evolutionary biology

so stay posted, it’s coming soon…

Posted in biology, General Relativity, philosophy, physics, Relativity, Special Relativity. Tagged with , , , , .

Nagging Questions about Evolutionary Drift and Preferred Reference Systems

Usually when I think I’ve gotten something right I stop thinking about it. So it was irritating to start wondering if I had said enough about evolutionary drift. Oh well. Evolutionary drift is what we call it when a trait seemingly (and to the best of our knowledge, randomly) just ‘drifts’ into prominence. So can we tell what has happened due to natural selection and what is just drift? If we think that the trait provides some adaptive benefit we can argue on those grounds but many times we just don’t have enough data to back that claim up (think fossils). In ‘Consequences of Relativity in Evolutionary Biology‘ I argued that the phenomenon of drift was an artifact of relativity: we cannot tell in principle whether or not something is drift or naturally selected because what we count to be a mutation depends on our perspective. I believe this to be correct, but I think that others may be less convinced than I.

To remedy this more needs to be said about preferred reference systems. A reference system is a point of view in physics and a preferred reference system is what it sound like: a preferred point of view. Relativity denies that there is a reference system that is better than any other. This means that there is no one way to look at the universe. So, if you want to, you are free to declare that the earth is stationary at the center of the universe. You are free to declare the sun to be stable. You are free to declare that whatever is at the center of the Milky Way is the stable center and you are free to declare whatever it is outside the Milky Way to be the actual unmoving center, etc. It all depends on you, though explaining certain phenomena becomes more difficult depending on your choice, e.g. believing the earth to be the center of the universe worked (and still works) pretty well for almost all applications that we ever engage in. It took careful astronomical measurements of the movements of the planets that could not be easily explained with the earth at the center that caused Copernicus to move the center of the solar system to the sun (which made all the movements easily explainable).  The scientists of the day had come up with elaborate epicycle schemes to explain the motions of the planets to some success. It was that Copernicus was so much more successful at accounting for more phenomena that his account was accepted.

Now when it comes to adaptation, fitness and the like most of us really only have one perspective: our own.  We believe we know what makes us successful, what makes us smart, why we are better than the other animals.  This inherently colors our perspective on the fitness of other animals: we didn’t realize bats used sonar to navigate until after we had discovered sonar in a lab.  I guess we just thought that bats flew around blind in the dark before our advent of sonar.  This is all to say that the majority of us are currently in a geocentric, or more accurately anthropocentric, view of the biological universe.

Now I do not want to be seen as saying everyone is this way.  I suspect that there are biologists that can ‘see’ things from the perspective of other species.  The point is that when we study the changes in species most of us are limited in our perspective.  We are trying to figure out why certain mutations have occurred adding epicycles on epicycles to account for the data.  That is, we take some feature of a species, compare it to our own features, and then modify and tweak it to fit it in with what we already thought.  This isn’t wrong, but it is limited.  Recently I read a news story of a study that proposed a novel way in which birds can navigate: apparently birds can see Earth’s magnetic field . If this is correct, it would allow us to reinterpret features of birds in the same way that our discovery of sonar in bats affected our interpretation of their biology- as significantly different from our own.

Finally (again) drift: how are we to distinguish what is drift and what is natural selection?  I think the above discussion makes the distinction even harder to properly distinguish the two.  We have limited knowledge of ourselves and other species and some small change in an organism’s biology that at first glance looks irrelevant and a candidate for drift may yet enable some other feature that we are completely oblivious to. Birds see the magnetic field, squirrels’ tails heat to scare (only) predators who use heat sensing, who knows what’s next.  And who knows whether what we think one day is drift will not be natural selection the next depending on a new perspective.  But, again, this is nothing to worry about.

Posted in biology, fitness, philosophy, physics, Relativity.

Biological Space (Biospace) Travel

Yesterday I was walking though Chinatown and as I usually do when I am over there I stop by the Buddhist Temple and buy a fortune (and by the way, I am soooo happy that Fall has finally come to NY) . Now the fortunes that you buy in the Buddhist Temple are not your fortune cookie fortunes: Buddhist Temple Fortunes are 4-5 lines long, usually rhyme, give a probability of success or failure, and say something clever. So my fortune yesterday informed me that I should be concerned about designing a spaceship. Normally this might be seen as ridiculous, but seeing as I have pretty much defined biospace by giving dimension to mutation/generation, I am tasked with finding a way to travel through it to far away places. So long story short, biospace travel would be to take a person’s brain and somehow insert it into a different body. This is going from one location, one group of mutations, to another location – a different set of mutations. Sure this has been long discussed by academics, sci-fi writers and doctors, but now I get to couch it in my terminology: what we need is a spaceship for the brain. First we will try to get to low earth orbit and come right back (a brain removal and immediate replacement), then we will try to draw out the time that the brain can be out of the skull and then eventually we might get to the moon- a place that given enough resources could sustain the brain for a while. Eventually we will be able to get to other planets – other bodies – after enough time and effort. Long way off, but thanks Buddhist Temple Fortune!

Posted in biology, philosophy, physics.

Unit of Biological Mass Name Suggestions?

Since I have argued for an independent standard of measure for fitness, similar to the standard block of platinum iridium that is the kilogram, this has led me to wonder what to call the new measurement. In my mind whenever I had been thinking about fitness I just thought ‘massb‘ or ‘biological mass’. But this really isn’t the unit of measure, this is a description of what we are measuring. So what is needed is the name equivalent of the kilogram for a unit of biological mass. Since ‘Darwin’ is already taken, I am not immediately sure of a name. Perhaps ‘Watson’ or ‘Crick’ would do, but their names are more associated with genetics and not fitness per se (and I am unsure if I want to immediately associate fitness with genetics). Suggestions welcome

Posted in biology, fitness, philosophy, physics, Relativity.

Video Game design

I’ve bought meself a Wii and I quite like it. But there needs to be some more killer games.. freaking mercury meltdown got delayed. So for some reason – this is a first for me – I thought of a video game design. Simply put it is a spy game. The interesting thing is that each level is composed of 2 parts: the first part is a ‘training’ program put on by the spy agency to train the spy in what needs to be done. This ‘training program’ will not make use of the Wii motion sensors but will feature classic style gameplay only. Then the spy is sent on the mission but now to do everything will require using the motion controls. This game design will specific highlight the immersion that the motion controls bring to the game by contrasting them with the classic controls for doing the exact same operation. Also, the game design is efficient by reusing aspects of the same level design twice, though with different art direction, and differences in the ‘training’ and ‘mission’ – due to ‘incomplete intelligence’ – will make for good surprises. Ok game makers, hop to.

Posted in design, products, technology, Wii. Tagged with , , , , .

Winning the Search Engine Wars

I am now #1 and #2 in Yahoo! Searches for ‘relativity biology’ and ‘biology relativity’ and #1 for both strings in a Microsoft Live Search. The search engine bots have been giving me some love though I am still waiting on Now to convince people to actually search for such strings……………

Posted in internet.

Consequences of Relativity in Evolutionary Biology posted

My article “Consequences of Relativity in Evolutionary Biology” has been posted to GroundReport.  I’m pleased with myself because I believe that I have actually been somewhat comprehensible and written something worthwhile.  It’s also a little sad- I’ve said what I wanted to and I’ll need to start something new.  One of these days I’ll write something longer than a page and a half.

Posted in internet, philosophy.

The Birth of Comedy out of the Suicide of Tragedy

The Birth of Comedy out of the Suicide of Tragedy


Letterman and Leno

Nietzsche felt that the rise of the comedic play signaled the end of the traditional Greek tragedy, and with it, great art. However, this new comedy still retained much of the old theory behind his conception of the tragedy. The two primitive artistic impulses represented by the Gods Apollo and Dionysus are still critical, but in comedy the old duality is split into a ternary system with Aesthetic Socratism opening up a ground in between. This middle acts as sounding board that evaluates the merits of the artistic impulses against the average and normative feelings of everyday life. With this new and utterly familiar impulse, the old Gods can at best be hinted at, as the everyday normality that Socratism brings cannot be escaped from.

Tragedies were necessarily made from the interaction of two opposing impulses. Apollo represented the dream state that employed forms and images to generate grand illusions. This aspect of the tragedy gave the general form of the story: Mount Olympus, oracles, Gods, etc., as well as the literary style employed. Dionysus, however, embodied the drunken ecstasy that strips away all representation and reincorporates the body into the world without intermediate thought or consideration. Solely content is given to the tragedy by the Dionysian component. In this Nietzschean tragedy the characters were all merely masks of Dionysus thrust into an Apollonian context. With this union of the Apollonian forms with the Dionysian content comes forth a work of tragic art.

When tragic art was created in such a way, Nietzsche held that it was beyond our mental faculties to completely comprehend it. He says on page 80 (of The Birth of Tragedy and the Case of Wagner, trans. W. Kaufmann), “Even the clearest figure always had a comet’s tail attached to it which seemed to suggest the uncertain, that which could never be illuminated,” and that there was always an “incommensurability in every feature and every line.” Regardless, the tragedies enjoyed almost universal success.

Socrates did not like the old tragedies though. He held that, “Knowledge is virtue,” (84) and as a corollary, “To be beautiful everything must be intelligible,” (ibid.). Under this scheme the absolute lack of intelligibility that was fundamental to the tragedy was no longer of first-rate artistic value. Moreover the new requirements, “man only sins from ignorance; he who is virtuous is happy” (91), made tragedy low, base and to be avoided as sinful and without virtue. The very aspect that previously gave the tragedy its greatness became its downfall in Aesthetic Socratism.

With this full reversal of values, the suicide of tragedy becomes clear. Neither the Apollonian nor Dionysian can withstand this change. The Apollonian is an impulse towards the ideal, to the form of the world and cannot be fully explained insofar as the ideal itself is unreachable; the Dionysian attempts to connect life in a more intimate way with its surroundings, such that the impulse is more basic and prior to rational thought.

Where can Nietzsche go from here? He has seemingly broken any connection to his theory with the advent and incorporation of Aesthetic Socratism. However, not all is lost. As the tragedy declined in popularity, a new form of entertainment arose: the comedy. In the comedy, the plot revolved around daily Greek life. Every aspect, every character, every twist and turn of the plot was readily understandable and identifiable to the audience. But how could this be entertaining, especially with the tragedy still in recent memory? Were the Greeks so sick of tragedy and primed for Socrates arrival that they were prepared to abandon all their old aesthetics for new ones?

Nietzsche does not think that the comedy and Aesthetic Socratism killed the old artistic impulses, but instead somehow bastardized then into being merely secondary. In this way both the Apollonian and Dionysian could be retained in some respects, so long as an undercurrent of overall intelligibility was maintained. What then does Aesthetic Socratism amount to, especially in terms of some sort of substructure for the old artistic impulses to be reconstructed on? It is the firm belief that between knowledge and reason one can be “liberated from the fear of death,” and in doing so, essentially make all of life “comprehensible and thus justified,” (96). Therefore the baseline for the artistic impulses must be everyday logical and scientific truths at home with any person endowed with knowledge and reason.

Even though the fundamental belief of Socratism has now been brought out, it is still not clear how this confidence in our abilities to understand can produce anything artistic. However, it is illegitimate to ask for a remnant of the old tragic theory under the new schema: tragedy is long dead. Instead one must take Aesthetic Socratism while still under the influence of the past: the Apollonian and Dionysian must evolve to incorporate intelligibility, as intelligibility cannot incorporate them. Looking down from the height of the Gods, how does this impulse for the everyday human endeavor appear? As our finite reality enters our currently God-like consciousness, “it is experienced as such, with nausea,” (60). This sickness brought on by the absurdity of human existence in comparison with the far reaches of our dreams and ecstasies can only be made bearable again by art: “the comic as the artistic discharge of the nausea of absurdity,” (ibid.). Therefore it is the old artistic impulse, twice used, that produces of a comic work of art: once to conceive of Socrates as a new God (82) and then again to escape from him.

Hence the artistic impulses are not lost in comedy, but what has happened to them in their second iteration, the re-conception of the everyday? However big the “enormous driving-wheel of logical Socratism… behind Socrates,” (88) actually is, the best it can muster is reason (logic) and (scientific) knowledge. Nietzsche realizes that with these two constraints, logic and science, “The Apollonian tendency has withdrawn into the cocoon of logical schematism… the Dionysian into naturalistic affects,” (91).

Finally we have Nietzsche’s conception of a comic art: tragedy restrained by everyday life. But the above formulation is only accurate for one spectator: the playwright. There is no comedy for Euripides; there is only his bathetic tragedy (the comic doesn’t normally laugh at his/her own jokes). Every other member of the audience, on the other hand, does not have the same perspective, but the opposite. They side with that which they know, the Socratic championing of the everyday, and hence the comic art becomes the everyday constrained by tragedy. This brings the Apollonian and Dionysian together as two different impulses away from the Socratic, giving innuendos towards something great and ultimately tragic, but now unreachable.

Now we can see the general form of the comedy is different than the tragedy. Tragedies were born out of the two artistic impulses and hence could really only take one form: Apollonian form with Dionysian content. With the advent of the third and now critical impulse, two new relations were created: Dionysian to Socratic and Apollonian to Socratic. In the case of the first relation, the Dionysian impulses truly cannot give form, and so the Socratic must then act Apollonian, but only in contrast to the Dionysian. Secondly, as Apollonian impulses cannot give content, the Socratic must then be a surrogate Dionysian; again, not in a true sense of the term Dionysian, but in mere contrast, as a pseudo-god. In so far as the Socratic only acts as a foil, the contrasting impulse is also limited. This signals two distinct forms of comedy, using the Socratic as a substitute for weak comparison.

However, from the Socratic spectator’s point of view, the Apollonian and Dionysian are secondary. Instead of being a foil for the Gods, the Socratic is elevated to Godly status by its ability to make clear the artistic impulses. The Dionysian and Apollonian have now become intelligible: when the Socratic, the everyday, acts as content, then we can know the form in its contrast to the Socratic to be Apollonian, and conversely when the Socratic acts as form, the content is the Dionysian in contrast. Hence Nietzsche volunteers, “Cool, paradoxical thoughts replacing Apollonian contemplation-and fiery affects, replacing Dionysian ecstasies,” make up the comedy from Socrates Cyclops eye, “and in no sense [are] dipped into the ether of art” (83).

Critically, we must wonder whether Nietzsche’s theory is viable. Late night comedy is prime hunting ground, but we must start with the Socratic understanding since it is the only intelligible foundation we have.

“The Tonight Show” with Jay Leno on NBC seems to be a prime example of Dionysian comedy. Leno always starts off the show by shaking hands with the audience. Then he goes into a monologue of jokes followed by some sketches. The show then moves into an interview stage with celebrities and ends usually with a musical performance and sometimes a standup comic. This all seems very normal and could be any sort of variety show. However, this is the first clue to Leno’s comic insight: a Dionysian comedy requires that the form be entirely mundane and everyday, entirely Socratic. Now the way he even starts, by shaking hands with the audience, can be seen as part of his comic routine: it binds him to the everyday people in a communal way. Next comes the monologue. Perhaps not every, but nearly all of the jokes have a similar format: the build-up to the punch line is in entirely normal, everyday speech; he might as well be a reporter. But then comes the punch line: it has some sort of strong reference to some fiery affect, a feeling of drunken ecstasy. For example, a few days ago (probably on or around 4/18) he began a joke by saying how the troops searching Saddam Hussein’s palaces had recently found hordes of pornographic magazines. The punch line: the magazines are being referred to as “weapons of mass–turbation.”

After the monologue comes a skit or two. Some sketches are regulars and appear consistently on certain nights. Every Monday night a bit called “Headlines” is done. Very simply, Leno collects clippings sent to him from around the country that he finds funny due to a misprint or just carelessness and puts them on display for everyone to see. Each headline itself is inconsequential or just an honest mistake and always found in some legitimate source, but when he puts his spin on them, they take on extra Dionysian shades of meaning that were not meant to be there. Tonight (4/23), Leno had a debate similar to the new “Point, Counterpoint” debate on “60 Minutes”. Instead of having two political rivals, he brings together two relative morons and asks them simple questions. The joke seems to be in the universal joy of not saying the stupid things that they say: their ignorance is laughed at, but it only is funny in the setting comparable to simple, serious, everyday questions asked.

“The Late Show” with David Letterman on CBS makes for an excellent illustration of Apollonian comedy. He too begins his show with a funny monologue before having some skits and eventually interviewing guests and ending with some musical performance. However, his monologue is much shorter than Leno’s. Instead he moves directly into skits and stunts. Sometimes he even interviews a guest before the stunts. Recently he has been doing a short little segment that pokes fun at Dr. Phil the TV psychologist. It is called “Dr. Phil’s Words of Wisdom” and essentially consists of a short cut of Dr. Phil saying something apparently stupid. The funny thing about the segment is not the clip itself, which is obviously taken grossly out of context, but the entirely new context given: words of wisdom. This contradiction in name and content is the Apollonian impulse away from the Socratic; the displacement of the form of presentation is the Apollonian comedic insight.

Letterman also has a great segment called, “Is this anything?” A performer does an act and then Letterman and Paul Shaffer decide if what the performer did was either something or nothing. The absurdity of the situation is that the whole thing is treated as a kind of game show, as if the performer could lose something by the act being determined to be nothing. All the while, Letterman has two performers, the “Late Night Grinder Girl” and the “Late Night Hula-Hoop Girl”, and models flanking the person judged, not as a distraction, but as to create an even grander sense of performance. This great build up to a relatively inconsequential decision again shows the Apollonian comedic insight.

Lastly, Letterman’s “Top Ten” is a prime example of the Apollonian form with Socratic content. Nothing in the “Top Ten” is usually that far-fetched or unusual. The genius was to group these ten things together and to order them for a purpose, and that is where the comedy was created.

Many more examples from both shows can be given to support the above claims. Interestingly, both comics are not limited to only their own style of comedy even if they are reluctant to venture too far. The Socratism each uses gives them access to a reflection of the artistic impulse they are unfamiliar with and the illusion that they “know” it. Recently Letterman made a Dionysian joke: he began by commenting on how we could determine if Saddam Hussein had died under rubble since we had his DNA. Then he proceeded to show us a picture of the person who obtained the DNA: Monica Lewinsky. As soon as the joke was over, he began to apologize: the form was not up to his usual Apollonian standards and that made the punch line a comparative low blow to the rest of his jokes. Interestingly Leno had made a similarly “tasteless” joke the same night; his response was to announce that he would not apologize.

Leno too makes some attempts at Apollonian comedy. He has a “Jeopardy” style skit in which he has comedian fill the roles of people in the news. The comedians give answers, reflective of their character, to legitimate questions. This phony game show setup would be similar to a game Letterman might play, but Leno is unsure of this kind of comedy and guarantee’s laughs by having comedians fill the roles. The above-mentioned “Point/ Counterpoint” could be seen as an artificial and Letterman-like game as well. Leno does not focus on this though: the setup is still a current event, not an arbitrary construction as “Is It Anything?” is, and finds the comedy in the content, the contestants.

Comedy, sparked by the tragic and mediated by everyday life, has a special place in between great art and not being art at all. To incorporate Socrates the Gods Apollo and Dionysus had kids: Letterman and Leno. These lords of late night talk shows are able to handle the tragic Godly insights as well as keep one hand on the pulse of the nation. In the synthesis that followed, each developed a unique style antithetical to the other. Leno takes things out of context; Letterman puts things out of context. Ultimately neither could survive without the other, just as Dionysus and Apollo need each other. However, the inheritance of Aesthetic Socratism dooms each into attempting, against their best instincts, the comedy of the other.

Posted in art, ethics, fun, philosophy. Tagged with , , , , .